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How Old Is Stem Cell Science?

How Old Is Stem Cell Science?


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How would we know what a stem cell was when we didn't even know the cell? How can we hope that oral stem cells can produce healing? Numerous inventions and a good few Nobel Prizes have led to today's successful stem cell collection.

Husky is not the time

Without learning about cells, securing sterility, and developing the technique of tissue culture, we cannot talk about stem cell research today. And knowing about the stem cells would get us little if we couldn't implant them later into the body from which they were derived or into another sick body. Therefore, in addition to cellular knowledge, all the knowledge gained through tissue transplantation procedures is essential. After the blood is tissue, the first transfusion itself is the blood transfusion. Today's transfusion science would not have existed without Dr. Karl Landsteiner, a Viennese medical researcher who had won the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the AB0 system in 1930. Another milestone was the discovery of other blood groups, the birth of immunology, including a number of molecular immunology findings.
It is clear from all of these that it is not too long ago to look at where the idea came from, how you might want to be able to cure it with a geneticist. In spite of this short story, there have been so many significant discoveries in the subject, and accumulated so much knowledge in the last fifty years, that the historical review can only take on the most important events.
The beginnings of stem cell research date back to the mid-1800s. At this point, it became clear that the body is the precursor to cells, which are the basic units of cells. They have discovered that by division, two cells can develop into another. The first true stem cell was observed at the turn of the last century, and cells were found that produced blood cells.

Stem cells don't die - not in the lab

In 1907, American Ross Harrison and then his French colleague Alexis Carrel laid the groundwork for a littermate. Their work has made it possible to keep the cells of the body alive outside the body and, moreover, to divide them. This was our condition to get a deeper understanding of the cells of our various tissues. With regard to the use of glandular cord blood, neonatal growth is important today, as the number of stem cells in the removable blood volume is usually not sufficient for the growth of adults.

Transplantation beginnings

The first experiments on organ transplantation were in the 19th century. century, although the testing of appropriate surgical techniques was the focus of research, there was still no knowledge of excuses. The first successful kidney transplantation was on a dog and Imre Ullmann was born in Pecs, a physician who reported results in a clinic in Vienna in March 1902. The first human kidney transplantation took place in 1933. Voronoy, a Ukrainian donor, transplanted the organ into a patient with renal insufficiency. This would have been the last chance for the lady, but the organ has busted out. At the beginning of the 20th century, bone marrow cells were introduced into the body of people suffering from anemia (anemia) and leukemia. This, however, was a blatant one, and as such it did not prove to be a successful cure.
However, there have been lab experiments in mice with abnormalities in bone marrow. With the help of an infusion, a foreign mouse bone marrow was injected to restore its function. Encouraged by the experiments, doctors are wondering how to use it safely in human medicine.

Are you family?

Meanwhile, in the 1940s, George Schnell's attention to cancer was noted during his cancer examinations. Inoculated tumors survived only in mice that are genetically related. The hypothesis of correlation was also provably proved. To their name is related to the discovery of a tissue-incompatible antigen called MHC, Major Histocompatibility Complex.
In the 50s, French doctors tried to deliver bone marrow cells several times more to people who had been infected with radiation, but they did not switch to standard healing techniques. Almost a French physician, Jean Dausset, made a major discovery in 1958 about the discovery of the immune system. He identified the first human histocompatibility (tissue compatibility) antigen, which Humann called Leukocyte Antigen. This system is the equivalent of the MHC previously discovered in mice. These proteins are found on most body cell surfaces, although they are called HLA short for human leukocyte antigen. Dausset's colleague, Benacerraff, goes on to describe the basic principle of immunogenetics, according to which the strength of the rejection response depends on the degree of histocompatibility between the donor and the recipient. Conversely, the higher the tissue's HLA-like identity, the greater the acceptance of the transplanted organ by the recipient body. Schnell, Dausset and Benacerraff for their discovery have been awarded a fewer Nobel Prizes.
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Stem cell transplants immediately

The discovery of stem cells actually dates back to 1963. US researchers have found stem cells in the bone marrow of mice. It is from these stem cells that the blood cells are formed, the different blood cells, that is, these stem cells are actually blood cells.
The first successful bone marrow transplant was performed in 1968 at the University of Minnesota. He had bone marrow from a sibling of a child with immunodeficiency disease.
From the 70's, bone marrow transplants to patients have been specifically targeted for transplantation of these haematopoietic stem cells.
In 1973, members of the New York Medical Team, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, completed the first non-relative bone marrow transplant. A five-year-old patient suffering from immunodeficiency disease found a donor in a bone marrow donor bank in Copenhagen. After treatment with the seventh infusion, the implantation succeeded, and the hematopoietic function began to improve rapidly.
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In 1990, another Nobel Prize was awarded to stem cell and transplantation medicine. Dr. E. Donnall Thomas completed more than a hundred bone marrow transplants at the end of the '70s in patients with aplastic anemia and leukemia. In addition to the hay brought to their attention, he also made significant contributions to unrelated migrants.

Bringing life to life

In 1981, mammalian embryonic stem cells were successfully propagated under artificial conditions into a cell line, and one year later they began studying germline. It soon became apparent that hematopoietic, i.e., haematopoietic stem cells, which are particularly suitable for transplantation, are also present.
In 1988, the first genealogy application took place. The baby boy suffering from Fanconi's anemia hastened to help his cousin, who in the early stages of the fetus has been found to have the right kind of neoplastic neoplasm to be able to have a baby. The transplant was successfully completed without rejection, and the son continued to enjoy good health 15 years after the operation.
At the time of this insertion, little was known about the healing potential of the genome, only the results of his stem cell research in Broxmeyer and Boyse. The first non-cognate genetic cord implantation took place at Duke University in 1993. Today, approximately 500 genital transplantations are performed each year.



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